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December 2015

Volume 1 Issue 3

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Policy Article

Optimal Exercise Intensity in Obese Individuals

Jérémy Coquart*

In obese individuals, it is clearly established that body mass reduction decreases health risks associated with chronic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension, cardiovascular diseases). Therefore, body mass reduction is encouraged by major health agencies. To achieve this aim and avoid weight regain after weight loss, physical activity (PA) is recommended. If a consensus seems to have been found for the minimal training volume (i.e., at least 150 min.wk-1 of moderate-intensity PA). more discrepancies appear for the exercise intensities.

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Case Report

Evaluation of Obesity not Seen in Kars and in the Living Culture around Kars

Arzu Durukan*

This is part of a PhD study which has been carried out in Kars, one of the eastern provinces of Anatolia in Turkey. In the original study, some of the different groups living there, Azeris, Kurds, Terekemes, the Alevis called Turkmen in this region and Sunni Muslims Yerlis were interviewed. These are separated from each other due to their religious beliefs and called as different groups in this study. This is an anthropological research that is conducted to understand social structure of the region and understand the culture of constantly changing, conflicts and common food habits, lifestyles, preferences, and their interrelation of groups.

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Perspective Article

Better Understanding of the Exercise- Nutrition – Childhood Obesity Connection A Call for Research

Eliakim A, M.D, Nemet D, M.D.,M.H.A*

The mechanisms responsible for the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity are not clearly understood, yet life-style changes associated with increased caloric intake and decreased energy expenditure probably play imperative roles, especially in genetically predisposed populations. This indicates that preventive health education and therapeutic programs for childhood obesity require a multi-disciplinary approach that includes life-style/behavioral modification, nutritional education and changes in physical activity patterns.

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Research Article

Increase in BMI from 1.5 to 3 Years of Age is a Risk for Cardiometabolic Disease

Osamu Arisaka, MD, PhD, Go Ichikawa, MD, PhD, Satomi Koyama, MD, PhD, Toshimi Sairenchi, PhD

Changes of body composition related to excessive weight gain during infancy may play a pivotal role in the development of future cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we elucidated whether overweight/obesity related cardiometabolic risk factors at 12 years of age could be estimated based on changes of body mass index (BMI) at 1.5 to 3 years of age, because 1.5 years and 3 years health check of infants were routinely conducted in Japan.

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Research Article

Complex Relationships between Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure in a Lean Population in Eritrea

A Usman, G Mebrahtu, B Debru, A Tesfazion, A Gebresellasie, Y Ghebrat, Y Sium, B Tewolde, J Mufunda*

There is diversity in patterns of body mass index (BMI)/blood pressure (BP) relationships in population based surveys. BP is generally linearly related to BMI. In some populations there is a U shaped relationship between BP and BMI. Standardized surveys using WHO stepwise approach allow for in country and inter-country comparisons for this relationship. Limited guidance is available on targeted interventions on hypertension among lean populations.
             
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Rapid Communication

How to Start an Exercise Program for Obese Individuals and Minimize the Incidence of Orthopedic Problems?

Santiago Tavares Paes*, Renato Marques Bianchini

Obesity is a metabolic disease related to functional and mobility impairments, musculoskeletal pain and orthopedic problems. The regular practice of physical exercise is able to improve the functioning of energetic systems, increasing metabolic efficiency, which reduces the progression of the pathological effects of obesity. However, it is necessary to conduct the physical assessment of obese individuals before a physical exercise program, and evaluate orthopedic injuries that may be developed, by the overload of their own body weight.
             
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Research Article

Obesity Stigma Predicted More by Self-Body Image Than Disgust Sensitivity

Natalie A. Meek, Lorenzo D. Stafford*

Previous research found that increases in pathogen disgust were associated with increased obesity stigma. The nature and magnitude of these effects is however unclear, especially when compared alongside other relevant factors such as Body Mass Index (BMI) and self-body image. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate these issues using female university students (n=50), who completed the Three Domains of Disgust questionnaire, the Anti-fat Attitudes Scale, the self-body image (BSQ) questionnaire and had their Body Mass Index measured.
             
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